Islamic Divorce in New York State

Muslims residing in the State of New York are in a dual situation when it comes to the implementation of family law. On one hand, they are governed by the religious law of Islam, known as Islamic sharia, and on the other hand, the secular family law of the state of New York. To Muslims, the family law of Islam mandates that marriage and divorce among Muslims should be done in accordance with the Islamic sharia, regardless of whether they live in an Islamic or secular country. Civil divorce decrees obtained by secular courts are not recognized by Islamic sharia.

Under Islamic law, a Muslim man may marry a non-Muslim woman, whereas a Muslim woman is prohibited from marrying non-Muslim man. Under these rules, a non-Muslim woman marrying a Muslim man in compliance with Islamic sharia is subject to the rules of Islam in the areas of divorce, child custody and inheritance. In other words, a non-Muslim woman who gets married to a Muslim man in accordance with Islamic sharia, loses custody of her children in case of divorce, or in case the husband dies. Consequently, a non-Muslim woman marrying to a Muslim man is forced, under the rules of Islamic sharia, to surrender custody of her son when he reaches the age of seven, and her daughter at the age of nine. She also prohibited from inheritance. These rules are applied throughout Muslim countries with a system of sharia-based family law in place.

Marriage Contracts in Islamic Sharia
Under the rules of Islamic sharia, the marriage contract should include: (1) names and addresses of the couple; (2) name of the guardian of the bride; (3) names and addresses of two male witnesses; and (4) the amount of mahr, or a promise of money or its equivalent to be given by the husband to the bride. Like any other civil contracts, Islamic marriage contract should be in the form of offer and acceptance by the parties.

Contrary to the popular notion that mahr is dowry; it is not. A dowry is what the wife contributes to her marriage while mahr is an obligation on the husband to pay his future bride. Others call it a gift; it is not a gift either, because mahr is an obligation on the husband and is mandated by the Quran. The Quran calls it sadaq (Quran 4:4). If no stipulation of mahr is provided in the marriage contract, the marriage remains legal and in effect; in such a situation, the “qadi” (judge) will determine the amount of mahr, which remains a property of the wife alone. The amount of mahr can be paid partially: up-front (Arabic, muqaddam), and deferred until divorce or death of the husband (Arabic, muakhar), or it may be prepaid in full before the consummation of the marriage.

Legal Status of the Mahr Provision in Islamic Law
The most important feature of the mahr provision is that one party makes an offer and the other can accept or refuse to accept. It is a financial settlement between the couple in case a divorce occurs or the husband dies. Although, Muslim women do not personally bargain for the mahr agreements, and, in almost all of the divorce cases that I have seen so far, in the Middle East, Europe and the United States, Islamic marriage agreements involving mahr are negotiated by the representative (Arabic Wali) of the bride.

In the State of New York, an Islamic marriage contract involving mahr may be considered premarital agreement for a divorce settlement. In legal terms, this is called a concurrence of wills or meeting of the minds of the future husband and his future wife. This also means that each party from an objective perspective engaged in conduct manifesting their acceptance, and a contract was formed when both parties met such a requirement.

The basic rule is that a premarital contract will be interpreted and enforced in accordance with the law of the state in which it was entered into. Thus an Islamic marriage contract signed in Egypt according to the Egyptian law for example, must be interpreted according to the law of Egypt. The Restatement of the Law Second Conflict of Laws 3d, Chapter 8, Contracts, is clear about the law for the state chosen by the parties to a contract. The text of the Restatement reads: “(1) The law of the state chosen by the parties to govern their contractual rights and duties will be applied if the particular issues is one which the parties could have resolved by an explicit provision in their agreement directed to that issue.”

Looking at both academic and case studies in this area of law, this article points the reader in the direction of the current trends in the treatment of mahr in New York State and to address Islamic family law issues relevant to New York State law and the working of its legal system. The mahr provision in an Islamic marriage contract has been interpreted differently in other states. For more information on treatment of mahr in other states, the individual should seek legal advice.

Interpretation of the Mahr in New York State
Muslim men and women assert their Islamic legal rights in American family courts; as a result, Islamic sharia governing their marriages and divorces becomes an important and complicated part of the American legal landscape. This leads to a discussion of court cases involving Muslim marriage and divorce litigations in the State of New York, as well as whether New York courts will enforce the terms of Muslim marriage contracts, mainly the mahr provision.

New York courts have jurisdiction over divorce cases within its territory, with specific focus on premarital contract structured in accordance with foreign laws. And, various state courts have found no public policy prohibition in enforcing such agreements. In New York, a mahr agreement may be interpreted within the context of a contractual obligation.

In Aziz v. Aziz, the couple entered into a mahr agreement which required the payment of $5,032, with $32 advanced and $5,000 deferred until divorce. The New York court ruled that the contract conformed to New Yorks contract requirements, and that “its secular terms are enforceable as a contractual obligation, notwithstanding that it was entered into as part of a religious ceremony.” (See Aziz v. Aziz, N.Y.S.2d at 124).

In this case, the husband argued that the mahr agreement provided in the Islamic marriage contract could not be enforced because it was a religious document and was not enforceable as a contract. The wife responded by stating that although the mahr is a religious stipulation; its secular terms can be properly enforced by the court. The court agreed with the wife and ordered the husband to pay the deferred mahr. The court found that the mahr agreement complied with the necessary statutory requirements to be recognized and enforceable as a premarital agreement and held that the secular terms of the mahr agreement were “enforceable as a contractual obligation, notwithstanding that it was entered into as part of a religious ceremony.” The court stated that the mahr agreed to by the couple constituted a secular debt of $5,000 and ordered the husband to fulfill the terms of the agreement.

The case was based entirely on another New York of Appeals case of Avitzur v. Avitzur involving a Jewish Ketubah in which a Jewish woman sued for specific performance to force her ex-husband to appear before a Beth Din (Jewish Court). Under Jewish Law, only a man can grant a divorce, or “Get”. Until he does, the woman cannot remarry within the Jewish faith to anybody. Her children will then be considered illegitimate. In order that a “Get” may be obtained, both husband and wife have to appear before the Beth Din. The husband refused to appear, leaving the woman in a state of marital limbo, making her an “agunah.” The New York Court of Appeals found that the Jewish ketubah constituted a valid premarital agreement that could be enforced despite the religious underpinnings of the agreement.

Conclusion
As the second largest religion, and with the number of Muslims immigrating to the United State on the rise, American courts are more frequently looking into Islamic divorce litigations between Muslim couples. Out of respect to Islamic law and culture, American courts attempt to apply certain provisions from Islamic sharia, such as the mahr contract in divorce cases involving Muslim couples. By doing so, American courts risk involving their arguments with gender and economic inequalities between Muslim men and women, leaving Muslim women destitute. The application of mahr agreements in Islamic divorce in the United States prevents women from exercising their rights to equitable distribution of marital assets upon divorce. If the courts need to extend their respect to Islamic law in divorce situations, they should look into whether the wife had a choice in signing the mahr agreement. Muslim women do not personally bargain for the mahr agreements, and, in almost all of the divorce cases that I have seen so far, in the Middle East, Europe and the United States, the Islamic marriage agreements involving mahr are negotiated by the representative (Arabic Wali) of the bride. Other states do not regard the mahr to be a premarital contract. Individuals seeking information on the treatment of mahr by other states should seek legal advice from a competent attorney.

DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

Republishing of this article is hereby granted by the author.

My Husband Wants a Divorce – Examine Your Role in Your Marriage through Six Questions

My husband wishes for a divorce”; that is a hard fact you have to accept regardless of whether you like it or not. Yet, it doesn’t have to ended that way. Here’s six questions you should consider to help you save your crumbling marriage.

Before the darkness of the night puts her into pensive mood, she looks at the ring around her finger. It was right there at the porch where he proposed to her. No, it wasnt like the movies. He brought nothing else to make the ambiance more romantic but still, she found it the sweetest thing he had done for her. But as she stares at the ring again, a teardrop falls onto her hand. Theyve had big fights recently. Musing on his gestures, justifications and preferences, she concludes, “My husband wants a divorce.”

Giving in to separation seems to be the easiest way out. But a wife who values the sacrament of matrimony will ask herself how she can satisfy her husband in different ways. In evaluating her role in their union, she must answer the questions stated below.

Do you thank him for addressing your familys needs?

Mens role in our society centers on providing for their families. Centuries ago, they go hunting in the forest and bring food for their families. Presently, with our gender fair programs, it may not be as emphasized as before but still, they would like to attain that feeling of accomplishment and pride for attending to the needs of his loved ones.

Do you give him enough silence?

Women tend to talk much more than men. When they are strained, confused or contemplative, they need minutes to think by themselves. Though this makes them difficult to figure out, they consider the quiet time golden. If he doesnt feel like chatting, dont force him. Though he isnt verbally communicating, he is still thinking.

Do you directly say what you want?

Another difference between men and women is how they convey their message. The former are straightforward while the latter beat around the bush. This unlikeness causes serious arguments and worse, it makes some wives say, “My husband wants a divorce.” Refrain from making long introductions or from letting him read between the lines always. Cut your introductions short and dont let him decipher your coded words. As much as you can, dont be ambiguous. You can still do it with tact.

Do you sometimes make the first move in lovemaking?

Lets face the fact that sex is important for men. Women who are boring in bed disappoint them. If you are too tired to make love, all you have to do is explain and be understood. Moreover, men dont want to be in the driving seat always. They want their partners to do their share of first moves as well. By the way, men love sexy underwear.

Do you let him hang out with his friends?

Like women, men need the company of friends. Talking about sports, cars, art and current events over some bottles of booze makes them realize there is a world outside their home. Dont get easily jealous with the time he spends with his friends. Otherwise, hell think you want to control his life.

Jessica Kirk Professional Lawyer

Dedication to the practice of family law has helped lawyer Jessica Kirk build a solid reputation as a divorce lawyer. Her compassionate and knowledgeable approach to the issues of divorce has helped her clients successfully resolve many of the associated issues, such as child custody, alimony, and division of property. She has represented both men and women in divorce cases and along with her partners at The Crittenden Law Firm in Birmingham, Alabama she uses her experience and the firms dedication to resolving family issues to provide expert service.

As a graduate of the University of Alabama Law School and a member of such organizations as the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, lawyer Jessica Kirk approaches her work with dedication and integrity. Her divorce clients receive not only expert legal representation, but solid guidance through every step of the process.

About the University of Alabama Law School:

Throughout history, the laws for combating piracy became a key building block for todays international legal system. Alabama Laws Dean Kenneth C. Randall surveys the unique, historical relationship between piracy and international law during NPRs special report, “An Old Scourge, Piracy, Is New Again,” on Monday, May 4.

Since 1994, Alabama has had a law in place requiring all convicted felons to submit a DNA sample. But that could soon change. A bill currently making its way through the state legislature would allow for a DNA sample to be taken from everyone arrested and charged with a felony or sexual offense after October 2010. David Patton, assistant professor and director of Alabama Laws Criminal Defense Clinic, speaks with Alabama Public Radio about potential pitfalls should this bill become law in the Wednesday, May 6 story, “Making It Legal To Take DNA From Felony Arrestees In Ala.”

The Career Services Office reported 97.4% of Alabama Laws 2008 graduates as employed within 9 months of graduation. This is the 13th consecutive year that the Law School has had its employment rate above 95%. Also, the number of employers who visited Alabamas campus last Fall to conduct jobs interviews with our law students increased by over 20%.

Podcasts are now available from the February 27, 2009 Law, Knowledge & Imagination symposium titled, “Speech and Silence in American Law.” Cambridge University Press will be publishing the papers in this symposium as well as those in UA Laws previous forum held in October 2008 titled, “Sovereignty, Emergency and Legality.”

The Chief Justice of the United States, the Honorable John G. Roberts, has committed to present UA Laws Albritton Lecture in 2010. Justice Clarence Thomas will give this same lecture in fall 2009, which will mark the second time he has spoken to Alabamas law students. The Law School was honored to welcome Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, of the Supreme Court of Canada, to Tuscaloosa on March 9 to present the spring 2009 Albritton Lecture.

Throughout history, the laws for combating piracy became a key building block for todays international legal system. Alabama Laws Dean Kenneth C. Randall surveys the unique, historical relationship between piracy and international law during NPRs special report, “An Old Scourge, Piracy, Is New Again,” on Monday, May 4.

Since 1994, Alabama has had a law in place requiring all convicted felons to submit a DNA sample. But that could soon change. A bill currently making its way through the state legislature would allow for a DNA sample to be taken from everyone arrested and charged with a felony or sexual offense after October 2010. David Patton, assistant professor and director of Alabama Laws Criminal Defense Clinic, speaks with Alabama Public Radio about potential pitfalls should this bill become law in the Wednesday, May 6 story, “Making It Legal To Take DNA From Felony Arrestees In Ala.”

How to Choose a Good Divorce Lawyer

Every relationship begins with a feeling of love and affection. But there can be some unfortunate situations where your life becomes a maelstrom. The marriage that you thought would give love and happiness will end up a lacuna. You experience a mlange of emotions when a necessity to proclaim a divorce arises. What you need the foremost in a situation like that are good lawyers who can understand your emotions, the emotional and financial stress that you are undergoing and help you accordingly. Moreover, the lawyer should be someone who can explicate things in a proper way for you to understand as the divorce process is going to be rigorous and time consuming. Since it is an intricate issue that is subject to too many complications and lots of mutual disagreement, it is indispensable to be circumspect. So it becomes a necessity to know how to choose a good divorce lawyer.

Qualities of a Good Lawyer

The lawyer you are looking for, in short, should be a legal eagle. After all, you entrust your future in the hands of the lawyer. An effectual lawyer is the one who will
Assist you in the proceedings of the court and the case
Provide courtly response for the questions that you pose
Help you understand the positive and negative aspects of the case
Assist you in concentrating on the important part of the divorce, keeping in mind the emotional problems. Precautions to Be Taken

You can carry on one of these procedures before you choose the right person to represent you in court.
Talk to friends or people who have already undergone the legal proceedings of a divorce.
Do comparative study by talking to more than one lawyer and check out how they differ and what is beneficial to you.
Think twice if you are comfortable talking to the lawyer about your marriage life.
Observe their opinion about arguing for child custody, if you have a child.
Talk to the lawyers personally and not through phone as this can give you an idea about how honest the lawyer is.
Do not let the desire of getting a divorce soon and breaking up from the marriage affect your analysis about the lawyer.
Check if the lawyer will effectively take care of the settlements, the alimony or the palimony. Clarifications to be Carried Out

Once a lawyer has satisfied all these criteria there are a series of questions that you should ask them to make sure you have chosen the right one. Some of them being,
For how long has the person been pursuing law as a career.
The lawyers area of expertise.
The trail experience that the lawyer possesses.
How has the lawyer handled cases that were similar to your case.
To what extent the lawyer has knowledge about the settlement and parental alienation.
The process of filing and getting a divorce in the city of your residence.
The apparent issues and obstacles in the case.
Duration of the process and the process that s/he would recommend.
Amount you are going to pay them.
The schedule of payment.Play Your Part Honestly

How Couples Could Benefit From Mediation

So often we hear about how high the rate of divorce is in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Divorces can be emotional, time consuming, and expensive affairs. More than ever, couples are being encouraged to use mediation services in order to solve their difficulties, in order to avoid all the difficulties of a divorce.

When emotions are running high and couples don’t know how they can possibly make things work anymore, divorce can seem like the only way out. Communication is the key to all good relationships and when communication breaks down, relationships tend to break down too. Mediation services are great because they teach you how to talk to each other about how you’re feeling in an open and honest fashion.

It can be difficult to talk about our feelings, even to those who are closest to us. Having difficult conversations can be uncomfortable, and sometimes we need a helping hand. Despite the fact we are arguing with our partner, we generally don’t like upsetting other people.

Conflicts between loved ones can be particularly difficult to handle because relationships are so steeped in history. Mediation is future focused, so an independent mediator will attempt to move the relationship forwards rather than allowing the couple to dwell on past events. Bringing up old arguments and past mistakes does not resolve anything and is no basis for a healthy relationship.

This is one fundamental way in which mediation and divorce differ. Divorce courts do not accept ‘irreconcilable differences’ as a valid reason for couples wanting to split up. They instead insist that fault is blamed on one of the parties involved. This is perhaps why mediation is becoming such a popular option for arguing couples. Divorce is not as simple as one person being wrong and the other right; it is infinitely more complicated than that.

If children are involved, then mediation could be useful for a couple as well. If talking about your differences doesn’t solve them, it could at least bring some civility to proceedings. If you still decide to divorce then it is best to do so in a civil manner, so the children are not left feeling anymore confused and upset than they need to be. Deciding on how often children are to be seen and who stays with who is another big issue when it comes to divorce, and it is better if this can be settled outside of the divorce courts in order to avoid as much distress as is possible.

Ultimately, divorce sometimes is the only option for some couples. However, it is certainly better to do everything in your power to attempt to reconcile the relationship outside of the court room to begin with.

Alienation of Affection Laws

Alienation of affection is a term used to point to a tort action brought by a deserted spouse against an individual or a group of individuals who are held responsible for the failure of the marriage. A tort is a wrongful act which causes injury or loss to someone. Tort laws deal with such acts where a persons behaviour or act causes an unfair injury or loss to another person. A tort can be intentional or accidental, but not illegal. Tort laws allow victims of tort to recover their losses. Although alienation of affection law is considered outdated and prehistoric by many, there are lawsuits related that can be justified even today. This subject brings numerous legal issues and often brings up questions which cant be answered by the common man that Experts can answer. The top five queries related to alienation of affection are listed below that have been answered by the Experts:

In which states is alienation of affection law recognized?

Each of the United States has their own rules and regulations for this law. However, there are four states in the US, namely, Illinois, Mississippi, Utah and South Carolina that recognize alienation of affection laws.

Is it possible for someone to file a case under alienation of affection law in Maryland?

The state of Maryland has abolished the law, but allows petitions for divorces. Many states have different standards and not every state recognizes this law in general. Experts can answer state specific law questions.

Does the state of Illinois allow someone to sue for alienation of affection after being diagnosed with PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) due to an affair?

Although IL recognizes it in some cases, the plaintiff must be able to prove conclusively that the defendants lack of affection was the prime cause of the affair or that PTSD was because of the alienation of affection that was caused by the affair from the spouse.

Can someone from a state which doesnt recognize alienation of affection laws file a case in a different state that recognizes the laws

A person can sue someone for alienation of affection only if the person being sued is a resident of a state that recognizes the laws. Apart from this, a person can also sue someone for any emotional distress caused by the person being sued.

Can a lawsuit be filed by someone in the state of Mississippi for alienation of affection after the divorce has been finalized?

It is possible for someone to be sued for even after the divorce. However, in the state of Mississippi, any lawsuit has to be filed within a time period of 3 years starting from the day on which the divorce was finalized.

Divorce attorneys mostly believe that the laws formed around alienation of affection should be abolished. However, there are certain trial lawyers who support such cases. Alienation of affection can range from employer/employee, parental alienation etc., to the biggest and most common form which is divorce-related. If you have any questions concerning alienation of affection laws www.justanswer.com/family-law.

How to Come Out Of Your Divorce With the Best Overall Outcome

The proceedings can be a very difficult time in the lives of individuals that are going through it. Whether you are a man or woman, there many things that need to be taken into account as you are looking at all of the different things that you need to take into consideration. Divorce is never a fun time for anyone, and you need to make sure that you are properly handling the entire ordeal to the best of your ability. There are many things that need to be taken into consideration in order to help you to come out of the situation with a positive outcome, hopefully for both individuals, although there may be some conflicting interests that keep this from happening. A do other things that you can do in order to influence a positive outcome from your divorce proceedings include;

Lawyers For Legal Representation

The first thing that you need to do if you are going through a divorce, is to find lawyers that are going to be able to help you with your legal representation. There many things that need to be taken into account throughout the ordeal, and lawyers that are specially trained in this field, and knows how to handle a variety of situations that normally would be problematic for individuals to handle on their own. There are many things that you need to take into consideration when searching for a Dallas divorce lawyer, which is also encompassed by Dallas Business Lawyer firms as well. You need to make sure that your lawyers know what your goals are in the divorce, what you would like to keep, and what you are willing to part with if there is a settlement. The last thing that you want is for this to go to court, so reaching a settlement can definitely be something that will be in your best interests in the long run.

Compromise

Any divorce proceeding is going to require a little bit of compromise on your end. You need to make sure that you are not being greedy, and are willing to part with the possessions that are rightfully your spouses. Although the laws say that each divorce should be around 50-50 in terms of assets being split, you also need to take into consideration what was yours prior to the marriage, and what was theirs prior to it. Some marriages start with a prenuptial agreement as far as who keeps what assets in the likelihood of a divorce, and what assets are going to be off-limits to each individual. Some prenuptial agreements will have clauses in there that state if infidelity is a part of the divorce, that there are going to be a number of different things that they need to look at.

It it is important that you go into every divorce proceeding with a good idea what you are looking to get out of it, as well as what you are willing to part with. By being able to compromise, and having the appropriate legal representation, you are my going to have a much higher likelihood that you come out of it with a positive outcome.

What Exactly Is A Divorce

Sometimes married couples do not get along and find that they are never going to make the marriage work. That is when a divorce comes into mind. A divorce is a legal action between married people to terminate their marriage relationship. It is a hard time for all that is involved.

We hope that you finish this article having learned at least a little bit of new information. If so, then we have done our job.

There is something that is called a no failing divorce. This means that the incite does not get in to why the pair requests to be removed. It worn to be that the guise opening the divorce had to verify certain reasons for receiving removed. Some of these reasons included falseness or abuse. This time was regularly demanding for the pair and even a little embarrassing. The questions of what parties had been liability are personal and these topics come out in the inciteroom.

Now the law is different and it permits one of the parties to get a divorce if he or she states in incite that the marriage is irretrievably crushed. mostly the umpire will not ask any other questions about the marriage and permit the divorce to move on.

In some divorces, however, they can get awkward and there are many emotions brought out in incite. This is a hard time to covenant with and many people go through very depressing epoch. In some of the instances, one gather does not want the divorce and they will brawl it with all that they have. This will make the position harder on both parties.

During the second part, we must switch to a more serious side to fully communicate the subject matter in a way for all to understand.

Some incite systems will want to make assured that the pair is liability the right thing. They will in some luggage order the pair to obtain counseling. This is typically only for the pairs that there is plan for. This is not for everybody and it is important to do only if one or both of the parties involved thinks that there is a attempt for reconciliation.

People regularly epoch give up on their marriage too hurriedly. In some luggage, they never genuinely give the other guise or the marriage a attempt. There are hard epoch in all marriages and some people influence to try and work it out, while others lean to just want to give it all up as hasty as they can.

It is forever best to do what makes both parties exultant and able to move on and get back to living the remainder of their life. leaving through a divorce will be one of the toughest clothes a guise can live through.

If you need help with this subject, or do not know how to begin, there are several free resources on related websites to give you a boost.

Contested Divorce in Thailand Ending a Marriage under Thai Law

Under section 1501 of the Thai Commercial and Civil Code a marriage in Thailand can be terminated by one of three different methods.

1. Death of a spouse
2. Cancellation by Court
3. Divorce

1. Death
The death of one of spouse is easy to understand.

2. Cancellation By Court
Approaching the Court in Thailand to cancel a marriage is not frequently brought into being. It is only in special cases with extremely good reason that the Court can be approached to cancel a marriage. This is eligible in circumstances where the plaintiff becomes aware of facts or factors relating to the marriage or the defendant that he or she was not aware of before the marriage. The facts or factors need to be of such nature that the plaintive would not get married if he or she were aware of these particulars before the marriage.

When the Court cancel a marriage it is not regarded as a divorce and it is considered that the marriage never took place.

3. Divorce
According to Thai Law, there is no differentiation between Thai nationals and foreign persons. Not considering a persons nationality, under Thailand Law, all inhabitants are acted towards in the same way.

Two forms of divorce can be obtained in Thailand:
1. Contested divorce
2. Uncontested divorce

Contested Divorce
A contested divorce can be requested by one of the parties for one or more of the following reasons that you will found under section 1516 of the Thai Commercial and Civil Code:
A different female is awarded status and is maintained as the wife of the husband and/or adultery is committed by one spouse
One of the two parties to the marriage has committed a crime and is found guilty or other form of misconduct.
One of the two parties have caused severe mental, emotional and or physical injury to the other party or have severely affronted the other party and or one or more of this parties family.
One of the parties to the marriage has forsaken his marriage party for a period that exceed one year.
One of the parties to the marriage has been sentenced to a prison term by Court and has been in prison for longer than a 12 month period, provided that the plaintive is not guilty of any involvement, approval or aware of the crime or misconduct of the defendant. Moreover that should the parties remain married and live together the plaintive will suffer undue harm or tribulation
Both parties, out of own accord does not live together any more for a period longer than 3 consecutive years.
One of the parties to the marriage are believed to gone astray, and or left the mutual residence for longer than three years. In addition it is not ascertainable if the person is still alive.
Be deficient in maintaining a marriage.
One of the parties has been declared to be in poor mental health for more than three consecutive years with no prospect of recovery.
One of the parties has failed to remain committed to the bond of good behavior.
One of the parties is be diagnosed with a transmissible and contagious hazardous illness which is not curable and that can result in harm to the other party.
One of the parties are affected by a physical impairment to such an effect that it is not possible to enduringly live together as husband and wife.

The Procedure for a contested Divorce:

1. A petition must be filed at the Court
2. Where claims of monetary compensation are applicable (like getting back 50% of the “common” or “marital property” called “Sin Somros” in Thai) a deposit of 2% of the value of the claim must be paid to the Court.
3. If the ruling is made in your favor, judgment can be made that the other party must pay back the deposit.
4. In the event where children were born out of the marriage, you will first have to go trough juvenile division proceedings that will provide the court with a report in this regard.
5. When parties can not agree during the negotiation session in Court, a trial date will be set.
6. The burden of proof is on the plaintiff and the plaintiff must be present during proceedings. Should the defendant do not attend, only the evidence presented by the plaintiff will be taking into consideration.
7. This process can take between 3 to 12 months in normal circumstances. That doesnt include appeals.

There are 3 main tasks that the Court will:

A) Verify is there is enough evidence about the ground. If not, the Court wont grant a divorce and it will stop.
B) If there is enough evidence to divorce, the Court will decide about the children of the couple. If there arent any children, then it goes to next step. The Court will rule according to the best interest of the children.
C) The Court will separate the common property between spouses in 50-50%. In cases where adultery is the ground, a Thai court can also allows damages to be paid if damages are claimed to the Court.

Alleging grounds for divorce Spain

Most countries have varying rules and procedures when it comes to the process for applying for a divorce. Usually this is on the basis of socio-religious grounds and it may be argued that a countries moral and religious norms are reflected in the requirements it enacts for a divorce to be applied for and approved.

Prior to 2005 the legal rules in Spain made it obligatory to offer appropriate grounds for making an application for a divorce. Spain has, however, passed new legislation (Ley 15/2005) which utterly renewed this entire tract of family law and in addition, in so doing, did away with a lot of the old obligations.

For that reason it is no longer imperative to be dependent on the normal allegations drawn on pre-2005 such as drug addiction, alcoholism, infidelity and cessation of matrimonial cohabiting. Now it is merely imperative that three months have passed from the time the marriage took place in order for a divorce to be applied for by either or both of the spouses. No motives are required besides an inclination by one or both of the spouses to part company.

The justification behind the changes was to streamline the system and bring a scintilla of modernity to the fundamental essence of the law in this area. So, either or both of the spouses may write a petition for a divorce and, if there be an agreement as to the important issues therein, may reach the prerequisites for a new process established by the legislation, that is normally known as Express Divorce.

‘Express divorce’ permits a faster, less expensive and simpler mechanism for a couple to divorce. A vital element of the Express Divorce mechanism is that there be an accord between the spouses, both as to the need to dissolve the marriage as well as to the precise specifics of the divorce. This takes the form of a written and signed agreement or Convenio.

When these issues have been agreed then it is just a matter of employing a lawyer who will write up the agreement formally in the form of a Convenio and have this submitted to the relevant court with the required additional documentation.